Wind energy is growing in the world, an encouraging trend on the eve of the Paris agreement on climate change at the end of the year. Wind power growth Technology is a direct result of the renewable energy policies put in place by governments.
These policies and actions, which have been discussed by governments convened under the umbrella of the UNFCCC this year, need to accelerate so that the international community can achieve its goal of maintaining the average rise in global temperatures. under 2 degrees Celsius. These policies need to be supported by adequate funding.
An analysis recently the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) shows that a considerable wind power capacity will be added this year, including Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The European offshore industry has already strong growth in the first half of 2015. The world’s largest markets are currently China, the United States, and Germany – three major economies with policies that reap the rewards of clean energy.
Record wind energy installations were completed last year, led by China, the United States, and Germany. According to GWEC data, 51.5 gigawatts (GW) were installed worldwide last year and $ 100 billion invested. China alone added 45.1% of new infrastructure, while Germany added 10.2% and the United States 9.4%. Worldwide capacity in 2014 was close to 370 GW, of which 31% in China, 17.8% in the United States and 10.6% in Germany.
A good example of how wind power is growing in policy in China, which has a renewable energy law and a national action plan for pollution control. These measures helped the country to go from almost zero to 114.6 GW of capacity in a decade, supplying 110 million homes.
The current target of 200 GW in 2020 “could be increased to 250 GW or more in the next five-year plan to be launched later this year,” says Kristian Ruby, chief policy officer at European Wind Energy Association. “In addition, it is expected that the next five-year plan will present a national emissions trading market that will provide additional incentives for deployment.”
The United States had installed 65.9 GW at the end of 2014. California, Iowa, and Texas are wind power strongholds.
Wind power has accounted for almost 30% of new power generation capacity in the last 5 years according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). It provides enough power for 16.7 million US households and has attracted more than $ 100 billion in investment since 2008.
The industry benefits from the Production Tax Credit (PTC), a federal tax credit introduced in 1992. This credit provides an incentive of 2.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for the first 10 years of operation of a facility. Washington’s Clean Power Plan could help the industry take another step forward. It depends, however, on the renewal of the PTC, which requires a vote on the part of Congress at the end of each year.
With 39.2 GW of wind power installed at the end of last year, Germany is the third-largest player in the sector worldwide.
The goal in Berlin is to ensure that one-third of Germany’s electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020, a percentage that needs to increase to 50% by 2030. The country’s renewable energy law guarantees tariffs for the first 20 years and gives priority to the electricity grid.
The site of the energy transition policy “Energies wind” of the federal government says that the Germans pay more on their bills, but he points out that electricity from sources such as wind and solar has no hidden costs, like pollution. Communities are also recovering money as 47% of the wind farms were community properties in 2012 according to AFEE, the national renewable energy agency.
The offshore sector in Europe has had the best start in its history. The 2.3 GW installed during the first six months set an annual record, with Germany, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands at the forefront.
Kristian Ruby reports that Brazilian wind energy could grow rapidly too. “The auction system put in place for renewable energies in 2009 and its declared goal of making wind energy the second-largest source of energy in the country, after hydroelectricity, has been an important driver of investment in the new capacity. More than 15 GW have been contracted, bringing the national total to more than 20 GW by that date, “he said.
Wind energy could weigh more heavily. Better policies and adequate funding are important for this to happen, which was discussed at a meeting of technical experts at the UNFCCC in Bonn in June. Despite its annual growth of 24.8% since 1990, wind energy accounted for only 3% of renewable energy inventories in 2013 according to the International Energy Agency (IEA).
Predictable market access and predictable rates for 10 to 15 years are what entrepreneurs need to finance projects and lower production costs, says Letha Tawney, who heads Charge, the World Resources Electricity Initiative. Institute (WRI). “Producers need long-term contracts, with the certainty of selling energy. The wind is profitable if you get good financing and income certainty. “
Ms. Tawney does not advocate for higher subsidies and higher fees because they are not necessarily effective. Long-term purchase agreements, such as Google and Face book in Iowa, for example, have provided certainty and boosted supplier investment.
Technical solutions, such as maximizing capacity factors, are also engines of growth, suggests Letha Tawney. “China is at work. We can use that knowledge, even if the technical challenges are not the same everywhere. ”Optimizing infrastructure makes the wind power more competitive than fossil fuels when adding new capacity to the grid. “In Colorado, there is more wind than the state demands. Wind farms have a capacity factor of 40%. People did not know it was possible 5 to 8 years ago.